By H Nifenecker
This publication describes the fundamental wisdom in nuclear, neutron, and reactor physics priceless for knowing the main and implementation of accelerator pushed subcritical nuclear reactors (ADSRs), sometimes called hybrid reactors.
Since hybrid reactors could give a contribution to destiny nuclear power construction, the publication starts with a dialogue of the overall power challenge. It proceeds by means of constructing the basic physics of neutron reactors, together with the elemental nuclear physics concerned. The booklet then provides computational equipment, with distinctive emphasis on Monte Carlo equipment. It examines the specifics of ADSR, ranging from the neutron spallation resource to security measures. an intensive dialogue is given at the measurement of hybrid reactors, which follows very diverse constraints from that of serious reactors. the prospect to optimize the resource significance is tested intimately. The dialogue of the gasoline evolution follows with its relevance to security and to the waste construction and incineration. The stipulations for having a continuing reactivity over sufficiently lengthy lapse of time also are mentioned. The booklet additionally evaluates a couple of functional designs which have been proposed. eventually, the final bankruptcy bargains with the exam of proposed and attainable waste transmutation rules and the position which can be performed through ADSR during this context. the aptitude good thing about the Thorium cycle is mentioned in addition to various situations that may be used to enforce it.
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Additional info for Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors (Series in Fundamental and Applied Nuclear Physics)
Thus ADSRs can increase quite signiﬁcantly the 233 U breeding capabilities. For 239 Pu the gain is smaller since a fast breeder can produce up to 150 kg/GWe/year. 5 kg of long-lived ﬁssion products could be transmuted each year per mA proton beam. Since a typical 1 GWe reactor produces each year 4 kg of 129 I, for example, a 20 mA accelerator could transmute annually the production of more than ten reactors. Chapter 3 Elementary reactor theory Before describing the physics speciﬁc to hybrid reactors, it is appropriate to review the basics of nuclear reactor theory.
The MOx fuel elements are used as substitutes of normal enriched uranium fuel elements in PWR. Note that the presence of 238 U in the MOx fuel is needed for safety reasons: to preserve a negative temperature coeﬃcient and partially breed the nuclear fuel so as to prevent too fast a decrease of the reactivity. While being irradiated the plutonium mixture is depleted of the ﬁssile 239 isotope and enriched in the 240 isotope, which is not ﬁssile by thermal neutrons but has a large capture cross-section (it is a neutron poison), as well as in transplutonic nuclei (minor actinides, especially americium) which are not or are poorly ﬁssile.
However, due to safety considerations, the fuel would include a minimum amount of 238 U which would limit the net consumption of plutonium. Fast reactors should also be able to incinerate minor actinides eﬃciently. Incineration of dirty plutonium and minor actinides would require one fast reactor for four to ﬁve PWRs. 5% 235 U enriched fuel elements by elements where about two-thirds of the ﬁssile nuclei would be 235 U and the remaining one-third 239 Pu and 241 Pu would allow a stabilization of the plutonium inventory.
Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors (Series in Fundamental and Applied Nuclear Physics) by H Nifenecker